A. D. Sakharov: Ihe Omuma, Ihe Omumu Na Ikike Mmadu

A. D. Sakharov: Ihe Omuma, Ihe Omumu Na Ikike Mmadu
A. D. Sakharov: Ihe Omuma, Ihe Omumu Na Ikike Mmadu

Video: A. D. Sakharov: Ihe Omuma, Ihe Omumu Na Ikike Mmadu

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Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov bụ onye otu zuru oke nke Russian Academy of Sciences, physicist, ọkà mmụta sayensị, otu n'ime ndị okike nke bọmbụ hydrogen. AD Sakharov bụ onye nnọchi anya ndị mmadụ nke USSR yana onye na-akwado ọrụ mmadụ. Nobel Peace chọr'inwe Laureate

Andrey Dmitrievich Sakharov
Andrey Dmitrievich Sakharov

Biography nke Academician A. D. Sakharov

A mụrụ Andrey Dmitrievich Sakharov na ezinụlọ nke onye ọkà mmụta sayensị physics na nwunye ụlọ na May 21, 1921. Nna, Dmitry Ivanovich, nwa onye ọka iwu, nwere agụmakwụkwọ na ahụ na mgbakọ na mwepụ. Mgbe m na-arụ ọrụ, edere m ọtụtụ nsogbu na ihe ọmụmụ physics. Mama m, Ekaterina Alekseevna, ada nwanyị na nwunye ya. Ọnụnọ nne na nne nne nọ n'ụlọ mgbe niile mere ka onye gụrụ akwụkwọ n'ọdịnihu nweta agụmakwụkwọ mbụ ya n'ụlọ. Ọ gara ụlọ akwụkwọ naanị na 7th ọkwa. Agụmakwụkwọ ụlọ ewetaworo Andrey nnukwu uru, na-akụziri ya nnwere onwe na ikike ịrụ ọrụ. Otú ọ dị, mgbe ọ bụ nwatakịrị, o nwere nsogbu site n’enweghị nkwurịta okwu, bụ́ nke kpatara nsogbu ụfọdụ n’ọdịnihu.

Nna ya nyeere ya aka gụchaa akwụkwọ ma nweta ihe ọmụma dị mkpa na physics na mgbakọ na mwepụ. Na 1938, Andrei banyere Physics ngalaba nke Moscow State University, nke na-gụsịrị akwụkwọ na nsọpụrụ. Nwa okorobịa ahụ jụrụ ịmụ akwụkwọ na ụlọ akwụkwọ gụsịrị akwụkwọ wee malite ịrụ ọrụ na ụlọ ọrụ ndị agha, nke mbụ na Kovrov, mgbe ahụ na Ulyanovsk.

Ọrụ sayensị nke Andrei Sakharov

Rụ ọrụ n’ụlọ ọrụ ndị agha dị na Ulyanovsk kwere ka Sakharov gosi onwe ya dị ka ọkà mmụta sayensị pụtara ìhè. N'ụlọ ọrụ ahụ, ọ mepụtara ihe mbụ mepụtara - ngwaọrụ maka ime ka ndị agha na-agha agha. Ọ bụ 1942. Agha a na-akpọ Great Patriotic War na-aga n'ihu, Sakharov rịọ ka edebanye aha na ndị agha Soviet. Ma, ajụrụ ya n'ihi ahụike.

Mgbe agha ahụ gasịrị, Andrei Dmitrievich laghachiri Moscow ma kpebie ọzọ ịga n'ihu ọmụmụ ya. Ọ banyere n’ụlọ akwụkwọ gụsịrị akwụkwọ na physics nke E.I. Tammu ma bụrụ onye na-enyere ya aka. Andrey gbachitere Ph.D. edemede ya n'okpuru nduzi nke Tamm. Na 1948 ọ malitere ịrụ ọrụ n'otu otu maka ịmepụta ngwa agha nke ngwa agha.

Ule izizi nke bọmbụ hydrogen mere na August 12, 1953. N'otu oge ahụ, Sakharov gbachitere ihe mmụta doctoral ya wee bụrụ onye agụmakwụkwọ. Maka nsonye ya na mmepe nke ngwa agha nuklia, Academician Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov nyere Medal nke Hero nke Socialist Labour na Stalin State Nrite.

Ihe omume A. D. Sakharov

Mgbe ule nke abụọ nke bọmbụ hydrogen, nke gburu ndị mmadụ, Sakharov gbanwere ọrụ ya. Kemgbe etiti afọ ndị 1950, A. D. Sakharov malitere ịkwado mmachibido iji na ule nke ngwa agha nuklia. Andrei Dmitrievich keere òkè na mmepe nke nkwekọrịta nkwekọrịta "Na mmachi nke nyocha ngwa agha nuklia na gburugburu atọ."

N’okpuru Nikita Khrushchev, ọdịmma Sakharov akwụsịghị na ngwa agha nuklia. O megidere ndozigharị nke agụmakwụkwọ, na-akatọ ọha na eze amụma nke onye isi Soviet. Onye ọkà mmụta ahụ na-emegide Lysenko, na-ewere ya na ọ bụ ya kpatara nsogbu niile nke sayensị Soviet. Edere leta na nzuko omeiwu, na-emegide mgbatị nke Stalin. A hụrụ ọrụ ndị a niile. N’oge ahụ, ọgụ a na-alụso ndị na-ekwenyeghị na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị juru ebe niile na Soviet Union.

Na 1967, Andrei Dmitrievich zigara Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev akwụkwọ ozi iji rịọ maka nchekwa nke ndị nkwekọrịta anọ. Nke a kara akara njedebe nke ọrụ onye sayensị. A napụrụ ya ọkwa ya niile wee ziga ya dịka onye nyocha ọhụụ. Sakharov megidere mmachi, ọnwụnwa ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị na ọnwụnwa nke ndị mgbagha. N’ihi ya, e wepụrụ ya n’ọrụ ngwá agha ọgwụrụ mba. Ma, ihe ndị ruuru mmadụ ya akwụsịghị.

Ebe ọ bụ na mmachi ndị Soviet ekweghị ka Sakharov kwupụta echiche ya nke ọma, ọ malitere ibipụta akwụkwọ na broshuọ na mba ọzọ. Onye oka mmuta na-akatọ oke ụjọ na mmegide Stalinist, mkpagbu nke ndị ọrụ omenaala na nka.N’ọnwa Ọktọba 1975, e nyere Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov onyinye Nobel nke Udo.

Ndụ onwe na ezinụlọ

N'ime afọ ndụ ya na ọrụ ya, Academician Sakharov lụrụ di na nwunye ugboro abụọ. Nwunye mbụ nke Andrei Dmitrievich bụ Klavdia Alekseevna Vikhireva, bụ onye mụụrụ ya ụmụ atọ. N'ihi agha na ilekọta ụmụaka, ọ nweghị ike gụchaa akwụkwọ ya wee nweta ọnọdụ dị mkpa na osisi ndị agha na Ulyanovsk. Klavdia Alekseevna nwụrụ na Machị 1969.

Nwunye nke abụọ nke agụmakwụkwọ, Elena Bonner, onye Sakharov zutere mgbe ọ nọ mba ọzọ. Ọ ghọrọ onye nkwado ya na mbọ niile a na-agba maka ikike mmadụ. E. Bonner kwadoro di ya na ndọrọndọrọ ọchịchị ya, ya na ya nọ na mba ọzọ na Gorky. Mgbanwe zuru oke Sakharov mere na 1986. Ọ laghachiri Moscow wee gaa n'ihu na-arụ ọrụ.

Sakharov tinyere ọnwa ndị ikpeazụ nke ndụ ya iji rụọ ọrụ na idepụta Iwu nke USSR. A hoputara ya onye ochichi ndi mmadu ma sonye na nzuko mbu. Otu onye ọkà mmụta sayensị ama ama nwụrụ site na njide ejiri obi ya na December 14, 1989.

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